Stem cell niche

A stem-cell niche is an area of a tissue that provides a specific microenvironment, in which stem cells are present in an undifferentiated and self-renewable state. Cells of the stem-cell niche interact with the stem cells to maintain them or promote their differentiation. It refers to a microenvironment with reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem cells; they even interact with stem cells to regulate cell fate. Various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus and in altering the gene expression during the embryonic development. In the human body, stem cells maintain the adult stem cells in a dormancy state, but during the tissue injury, it actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form a new tissue.