Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the study of potentially heritable changes in gene expression -  a change in phenotypewithout a change in genotype. It is cellular and physiological phenotypic trait variations that are caused by external or environmental factors that switch genes on and off and affect how cells read genes instead of being caused by changes in the DNA sequence. During morphogenesis, totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells.